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TB 671 2016 Connection of wind farms to weak AC networks

Issues with connection of wind power plants (WPP) to weak AC systems and how to improve the performance of these systems have been addressed. The working group has also investigated the interactions between wind generator converter systems, power system, and other power electronic in the vicinity. Guidelines for screening of potential connection points, selection of WPP models, and possible avenues for mitigating these issues are provided.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SPECIAL TERMS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1 INTRODUCTION        

   1.1 Purpose    

   1.2 Background          

   1.3 Scope          

   1.4 Summary of the salient work completed by other working groups 

   1.5 Gap analysis           

   1.6 Structure of the report        

   1.7 References

2 TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY     

   2.1 Introduction             

   2.2 Types of Wind Turbines Based on Speed Control  

   2.3 Generator Technologies   

   2.4 Wind Turbine Mechanical Control   

   2.5 Power Electronic Converters for Wind Turbine Converters 

   2.6 Complementing wind farm technologies     

   2.7 Complementing Grid Connection Technologies       

   2.8 References

3 ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH WEAK SYSTEMS    

   3.1 Introduction             

   3.2 Overview of WPP Performance Requirements        

   3.3 Technical Issues Identified in Weak Grids    

   3.4 Additional Challenges Identified in Weak Grids       

   3.5 Examples    

   3.6 References

4 MODELLING SUMMARY         

   4.1 Introduction              

   4.2 Power-flow Analysis         

   4.3 Short circuit Analysis         

   4.4 Transient Stability Analysis 

   4.5 Small Signal Stability Analysis             

   4.6 Electromagnetic Transient Analysis

   4.7 Islanding Assessment          

   4.8 Generic and Vendor Specific Models          

   4.9 References

5 ASSESSMENT

   5.1 Introduction              

   5.2 Benchmark Model for Assessment

   5.3 Generic Model of Type 4 WTG for Fault Recovery Investigation    

   5.4 Impact of the Interaction between WPPs on Fault Ride-through   

   5.5 Small Signal Stability             

   5.6 Possible Mitigation Solutions           

   5.7 A weak AC connected WPP in parallel with VSC HVDC        

   5.8 A weak AC system with a WPP connected via a LCC HVDC 

   5.9 Summary    

   5.10 References            

6 QUANTIFICATION OF THE ISSUES      

   6.1 Introduction             

   6.2 Short circuit ratio     

   6.3 X/R ratio      

   6.4 Voltage sensitivity  

   6.5 Rate of change of frequency (RoCoF)          

   6.6 Available Fault Level - Impact of nearby WPPs and HVDC links          

   6.7 References

7 GUIDE TO WIND POWER PLANT CONNECTION      

   7.0 Introduction          

   7.1 Identification / Assessment of System Capability    

   7.2 Issues to be Considered for the Identified Level of System Capability

   7.3 Performance Improvement Technology Selection  

   7.4 Planning Study Summary   

   7.5 References

8 CONCLUSIONS            

9 BIBLIOGRAPHY            

APPENDIX A: GENERIC WIND TURBINE MODELS            

APPENDIX B: CALCULATION OF VOLTAGE SENSITIVITY INDICES            

   B.1 Worked example    

   B.2 Relation to voltage angle displacement       

APPENDIX C: CASE STUDIES     

   C.1 ERCOT - Actual Operating Experience       

   C.2 GE - Operating Experience 

   C.3 Vestas - Weak Grid/Low SCR Interconnection Experience 

   C.4 Enercon - Application Experience   

   C.5 State Grid Corporation of China - Experience            

   C.6 WPP Connections in Tasmania, Australia - Experience