- TB 675 2017 B4-61 General guidelines for HVDC electrode design
- TB 671 2016 B4-62 Connection of wind farms to weak AC networks
- TB 663 Guidelines for the procurement and testing of STATCOMS
- TB 657 2016 Guidelines for the preparation of "connection agreements" or "Grid Codes" for multi-terminal schemes and DC Grids
- TB 649 2016 GUIDELINES FOR LIFE EXTENSION OF EXISTING HVDC SYSTEMS
- TB 619 2015 HVDC CONNECTION OF OFFSHORE WIND POWER PLANTS
- TB 617 2015 HVDC LCC Converter Transformers - CONVERTER TRANSFORMER FAILURE SURVEY RESULTS FROM 2003 TO 2012
- TB 609 2015 Study of Converter Transients Imposed on the HVDC Converter Transformers
- TB 604 2014 Guide for the Development of Models for HVDC Converters in a HVDC Grid
- TB 590 2014 B4-04 Protocol for reporting the operational performance of HVDC Transmission Systems
- TB 563 2013 B4-38 Modelling and Simulation Studies to be performed during the lifecycle of HVDC Systems
- TB 554 2013 B4-49 Performance Evaluation and Applications Review of Existing Thyristor Control Series Capacitor Devices – TCSC
- TB 553 2013 B4-47 Special Aspects of AC Filter Design for HVDC Systems
- TB 536 2013 C4/B4/C1.604 Influence of Embedded HVDC Transmission on System Security and AC Network Performance
- TB 533 2013 B4-52 HVDC Grid Feasibility Study
- TB 508 2012 B4-44 HVDC Environmental Planning Guidelines
- TB 492 2012 B4-46 Voltage Source Converter (VSC) HVDC for Power Transmission - Economic Aspects and Comparison with other AC and DC Technologies
- TB 447 2011 B4-48 Components Testing of VSC System for HVDC Applications
- TB 417 2010 B4-45 Technological Assessment of 800kV HVDC Applications
- TB 407 2010 JWG A2/B4.28 HVDC Converter Transformers - Guidelines for conducting design reviews for HVDC converter transformers
- TB 406 2010 JWG A2/B4.28 HVDC Converter Transformers - Design review, test procedures, ageing evaluation and reliability in service
- TB 388 2009 JWG B2/B4/C1.17 IMPACTS OF HVDC LINES ON THE ECONOMICS OF HVDC PROJECTS
- TB 371 2009 WG B4.40 Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)
- TB 370 2009WG B4.39 Integration of large Scale Wind Generation using HVDC and Power Electronics
- TB 364 2008 WG B4.41 Systems with multiple DC Infeed
- TB 352 2008 WG B4.34 Capacitor Commutated Converted (CCC) HVDC Interconnections: Digital modeling and Benchmark Circuit
- TB 337 2007 JWG B4/A3/B3.43 Increased System Efficiency by Use of New Generations of Power Semiconductors
- TB 280 2005 SC B4 WG B4.33 HVDC and FACTS for distribution systems
- TB 269 2005 SC B4 WG B4.37 VSC Transmission
- TB 242 2004 SC B4 WG B4.35 Thyristor controlled voltage regulators: Parts 1 and 2
- TB 240 2004 SC B4/A2 JTF B4.04/A2.01 Analysis of HVDC thyristor converter transformer performance
- TB 237 2003 SC B4 WG B4.19 Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) for arc furnace and flicker compensation
- TB 223 2003 SC B4 WG B4.28 Active filters in HVDC applications
- TB 222 2003 SC B4 WG B4.05 On voltage and power stability in AC/DC systems
- TB 215 2002 SC 14 WG 14.32 HVDC converter stations for voltages above +/- 600 kV
- TB 205 2002 SC 14 WG 14.31 Custom power - State of the art.
- TB 202 2002 SC 14 WG 14.26 HVDC stations audible noise
- TB 186 2001 SC 14 WG 14.20 Economic assessment of HVDC links
- TB 183 2001 SC 14/37/38/39 JWG 14/37/38/39.24 FACTS technology for open access
- TB 160 2000 SC 14 WG 14.27 Unified power flow controller (UPFC)
- TB 149 1999 SC 14 WG 14.29 Coordination of controls of multiple FACTS/HVDC links in the same system.
- TB 144 1999 SC 14 WG 14.19 Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM)
- TB 143 1999 SC 14 WG 14.25 Cross-modulation of harmonics in HVDC schemes
- TB 139 1999 SC 14 WG 14.30 Guide to the specification and design evaluation of AC filters for HVDC systems.
- TB 136 1999 SC 14 TF 14.01.04 Fire aspects of HVDC thyristor valves and valve halls.
- TB 130 1998 SC 14 WG 14.23 Operational guidelines and monitoring of HVDC systems
- TB 127 1998 SC 14 WG 14.11 Guide for upgrading transmission systems with HVDC transmission
- TB 123 1997 SC 14 WG 14.18 Thyristor controlled series compensation
- TB 119 1997 SC 14 WG 14.05 Interaction between HVDC convertors and nearby synchronous machines.
- TB 116 1997 SC 11/14 JWG 11/14.09 Guide for preliminary design and specification of hydro stations with HVDC unit connected generators.
- TB 115 1997 SC 14 WG 14.07 Guide for planning DC links terminating at AC system locations having low short-circuit capacities. Part II : Planning guidelines.
- TB 114 1997 SC 13/14 WG 13/14.08 Circuit-breakers for meshed multiterminal HVDC system.
- TB 113 1997 SC 14 WG 14.01.03 Test circuits for HVDC thyristor valves.
- TB 112 1997 SC 14 WG 14.17 Semiconductor power devices for use in HVDC and FACTS controllers.
- TB 103 1996 SC 14 WG 14.05 Commutation failures. Causes and consequences.
- TB 097 1995 SC 14 WG 14.12 System tests for HVDC installations.
- TB 093 1995 SC 14 WG 14.01.02 Guidelines for testing of thyristor valves for static var compensators.
- TB 092 1995 SC 14 WG 14.03.02 DC side harmonics and filtering in HVDC transmission systems
- TB 086 1994 SC 33 /21/14 JWG 33/21/14.16 Overvoltages on HVDC cables.
- TB 082 1994 SC 38 WG 38.01.05 Use of DC converters for VAR control.
- TB 078 1994 SC 14 WG 14.01.02 Voltage and current stresses on thyristor valves for static var compensators.
- TB 077 1993 SC 38 WG 38.05.04 Analysis and optimisation of SVC use in transmission systems.
- TB 068 1992 SC 14 WG 14.07 Guide for planning DC links terminating at AC locations having low short-circuit capacities. Part 1. AC/DC interaction phenomena.
- TB 065 1992 SC 14 WG 14.03 AC harmonic filters and reactive compensation for HVDC with particular reference to noncharacteristic harmonics.
- TB 051 1996 SC 38 WG 38.01.06 Load flow control in high voltage systems using FACTS controllers.
- TB 034 1989 SC 33/14 JWG 33/14.05 Guidelines for the applications of metal oxide arresters without gaps for HVDC converter stations.
- TB 025 1986 SC 38 TF 38.01.02 Static var compensators.
- TB 003 1987 SC 14 WG 14.04 Compendium of HVDC schemes throughout the world.
- TB 000 1994 SC 14 WG 14.02 A summary of the report on survey of controls and control performance in HVDC schemes.
- Session papers
- Other Documents
- SC Library
- Documents related to the development of HVDC Grids
In the light of recent advancement of HVDC technology and the prospect of DC grid projects a need to address the required guide lines to develop the DC grid codes has arisen. Grid Codes or network codes are a set of rules and guidelines that govern a power system environment with multiple stakeholders, which describe e.g. the technical requirements that the equipment must fulfil in order to be integrated in the system and the rules and guidelines for interactions between the systems and stakeholders under steady state or abnormal operation conditions. This brochure provides recommendations on the models of interactions between the stakeholders and activities from planning to operation including technical aspects of planning, building and operation of a DC grid. Based on these recommendations a specific (set of) grid code(s) can be developed for the DC grid. The focus of this document is on the MTDC grids, and not on the HVAC networks which are connected to these DC grids. The objective of this brochure is to support the concerned stakeholders i.e. system planners, system operators (SO) and system users, to develop their own particular DC grid code.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 STAKEHOLDERS AND ACTIVITIES FROM PLANNING TO OPERATION OF DC GRIDS
1.2 Overview of Planning Activities
1.2.1 Long and Med. Term Development Planning
1.2.2 DC Grid Planning
1.2.3 HVDC Project Specific – Technical Specification
1.3 Description of Project Specific Execution Activities
1.3.2 Manufacturing and Construction
1.4 Overview of Operation Activities
1.4.1 Short and medium term Operation
1.4.2 Real Time Operation
1.5 Description of Stakeholders / Actors
1.5.1 DC Grid Users
1.5.3 DC Grid Asset Owners
1.5.4 AC/DC Power System Planner
1.5.5 DC Grid Specification Provider
1.6 Description of Designer & Implementation Stakeholder
1.6.1 HVDC Consultancy Providers
1.6.2 HVDC Project
1.6.3 HVDC Technology Provider
1.7 Description of Operator Stakeholder
1.7.1 AC Grid Operator
1.7.2 DC Grid Operator
2 PLANNING CODE - OVERVIEW
2.1 Principles for planning a DC Grid
2.1.1 Basic principles
2.1.2 Methodology for planning a DC Grid
2.1.3 AC & DC Network Development Plan
2.1.4 Preliminary technical considerations for planning a DC Grid
22.214.171.124 Fault handling
126.96.36.199 Energy Balance
188.8.131.52 Power flow control
184.108.40.206 Standardization and Inter-operability with different components
2.2 Planning criteria of the DC Grid
2.2.2 Technical Criteria
220.127.116.11 Contingency definitions
18.104.22.168 System definition
22.214.171.124 Response to N-k outages
2.2.4 Planning minimum and max. capacities for power exchange in a DC node
2.3 Technical performances of the DC Grid
2.3.1 Steady state DC voltages
2.3.2 Transient and temporary DC voltage profiles
2.3.3 Steady-state DC current
2.3.4 Maximum Short circuit current
2.3.5 Inrush Currents
2.3.6 Overload capability
2.3.7 DC harmonic performance
2.3.8 Insulation Coordination
2.3.9 Measurement Tolerances
2.3.10 Modelling of DC Grids
3 CONTROLS AND PROTECTIONS:
3.1 Steady state characteristics
3.2 Normal operation control modes
3.3 DC Grid primary control
3.4 DC Grid secondary control
3.5 DC current regulation and control
3.7 Response during system dynamics and transients
3.8 System energization
3.9 Fault ride-through
3.12 Detection of DC faults
3.13 Protection against local and system faults
3.14 Response after a DC fault clearing
3.15 Compatibility with the existing DC Grid
3.16 Model of Converter Controls and Cables
3.16.1 Model compatible with existing simulation tools
3.16.2 Simulation studies to be performed
3.17 Reliability and Availability Requirements
4 OPERATION CODE FOR DC GRIDS
4.1 DC Grid operating states and codes;
4.1.1 Normal mode of operation (Green):
4.1.2 Alert mode of operation (Yellow):
4.1.3 Emergency mode of operation (Red):
4.2 Normal operation state, connection and disconnection of converter stations and cables
4.2.1 Security criterion:
4.3 Energizing of subsystems or components from the DC side
4.3.1 Energizing of subsystems or components from the AC side
4.4 Operation during and after fault conditions
4.4.1 Faults on the AC side;
4.4.2 Faults on the DC side;
4.5 Alert mode of Operation under DC voltage contingencies
4.6 Emergency procedures in case of forced outages
4.7 Operation and maintenance of the grid
4.8 Dispatching regulations
4.9 Energy balance
4.10 Contribution to the DC ancillary services (centralized control, damping…)
4.11 Performance checking and monitoring
4.12 Information on scheduled outages
4.13 Congestion management
4.14 Ancillary Services
4.15 Ancillary Services for DC Grids
4.15.1 DC Energy Balance and Reserves
4.15.2 DC transmission capacity reserve and power flow control
4.15.3 DC Loss Compensation
4.15.4 Energizing of DC subsystems, DC black start and restoration
5 CONNECTION CODE
5.1 Right of access to the DC grid
5.2 Regulatory considerations
5.3 Access procedure
5.4 Connection procedure
5.5 Operation Notification Procedure
5.6 Operational Interface Agreement
6 DATA EXCHANGE CODE
6.2 Long Term Planning data
6.3 Pre-Project phase
6.4 Project Specific Execution
6.5 Operation of DC Grid
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS