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TB 563 2013 B4-38 Modelling and Simulation Studies to be performed during the lifecycle of HVDC Systems

The purpose of this CIGRE TB is to provide an overview of the simulation tools, models and study procedures typically required at different stages of the lifecycle of an HVDC system. The document classifies the lifecycle of HVDC into five main phases: studies for planning and preparation of technical specification of an HVDC project; studies performed during bid process; post award studies; studies performed for commissioning, studies over the operational life of the HVDC system. For each stage the brochure presents the objectives, required input data and results of the main simulation studies as well as discusses the study related responsibilities between the entities involved to the HVDC project. The brochure also presents examples how the main simulation tools presented in the brochure are applied for HVDC lifecycle related studies.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Excecutive Summary

Introduction

Purpose of the Guide

Simulation Studies for HVDC Systems over their Lifecycle

Steady State Power Flow

Transient Stability

Electromagnetic Transients (EMT)

Real Time Simulation (RTS

Harmonic Studies

Short Circuit Calculation

Small Signal Analysis (Eigen analysis)

Other Study Tools

1    Scope of the Guide

      1.1    Introduction

      1.2    Purpose of the Guide

      1.3    Brochure Overview, by Chapter

      1.4    Reference list of CIGRE Material

      1.5    Abbreviations

2    Introduction to Simulation Studies for HVDC Systems over their Lifecycle

      2.1    Studies for Planning and Preparation of Technical Specification of an HVDC project

      2.2    Studies performed during bid process

      2.3    Post Award Studies

            2.3.1     Equipment Rating Studies

            2.3.2     System integration Studies

            2.3.3     Factory Acceptance Tests

      2.4    Studies at the Commissioning Stage of an HVDC project

      2.5    Studies performed during the Operational Life of HVDC System

            2.5.1     Transmission network planning and operational studies

            2.5.2     Post‐disturbance analysis and remedial repair

            2.5.3     Pre‐specification and specification studies for new transmission or generation 

                        equipment or for refurbishment projects

3    Modelling Tools

      3.1    Steady State Power Flow

            3.1.1     Model Capability

            3.1.2     AC Modelling Aspects

            3.1.3     HVDC modelling Aspects

            3.1.4     Use of the Model

      3.2    Transient Stability

            3.2.1     Model Capability

            3.2.2     AC Modelling Aspects

            3.2.3     HVDC modelling Aspects

            3.2.4     Use of the Model

      3.3    Electromagnetic Transients (EMT)

            3.3.1     Model Capability

            3.3.2     AC Modelling Requirements

            3.3.3     HVDC Modelling Requirements

            3.3.4     Use of the Model

      3.4    Real Time Simulation (RTS)

            3.4.1     Model Capability and Usage

            3.4.2     Modelling Requirements

            3.4.3     Use of the Model

      3.5    Harmonic Studies

            3.5.1     Model Capability

            3.5.2     System Modelling Requirements

            3.5.3     Use of the Model

      3.6    AC short circuit calculation

            3.6.1     Model Capability

            3.6.2     AC and DC System Modelling Requirements

            3.6.3     Model Usage

      3.7    Small signal analysis (eigenvalue analysis)

            3.7.1     Model Capability

            3.7.2     AC and DC System Modelling Requirements

            3.7.3     Model Usage

       3.8    Other Study Tools

4    Studies for Planning and Preparation of Technical Specification of an HVDC project

      4.1    Process overview

            4.1.1     Who's responsible for the studies and why?

      4.2    Power flow for system adequacy studies

            4.2.1     On target and key outputs of the study

            4.2.2     Transmission Network Modelling Details

      4.3    Short circuit calculation

            4.3.1     On target and key outputs of the study

            4.3.2     Transmission Network Modelling Details

      4.4    Preliminary analysis of dynamic stability

            4.4.1     On target and key outputs of the study

            4.4.2     Transmission network modelling details

            4.4.3     HVDC system modelling details

      4.5    Harmonic studies

            4.5.1     On target and key outputs of the study

            4.5.2     System Modelling Details

      4.6    References

5    Studies performed during bid process

      5.1    Process overview

            5.1.1     Who's responsible for the studies and why?

      5.2    Rating Studies

            5.2.1     Main Scheme Parameters

            5.2.2     Reactive Power

            5.2.3     AC Harmonic Filtering

            5.2.4     DC Harmonic Filtering

            5.2.5     Insulation Co‐ordination

      5.3    Interaction Studies

            5.3.1     Dynamic Performance Study

6    Post award studies

      6.1    Process overview

            6.1.1     Who's responsible for the studies and why?

      6.2    Equipment and Subsystem Design and Rating Studies

            6.2.1     Main Circuit Design

            6.2.2     Reactive Power

            6.2.3     AC Harmonic Filtering

            6.2.4     DC Harmonic Filtering

            6.2.5     Insulation Co‐ordination

      6.3    Interaction Studies

            6.3.1     Dynamic Performance Study using EMT software

            6.3.2     Transient Stability Study using RMS software

            6.3.3     Impact of HVDC converter on subsynchronous damping (HVDC SSTI study)

      6.4    Factory Acceptance Tests for Control and Protection

7    Studies at the Commissioning Stage of an HVDC project

      7.1    Process overview

            7.1.1     Who's responsible for the studies and why?

      7.2    Switching AC side filters and transformers

            7.2.1     Objectives and key outputs of the study

            7.2.2     Transmission Network Modelling Details

      7.3    Commutation failure test

            7.3.1     Objectives and key outputs of the study

            7.3.2     System Modelling Details

      7.4    Performance of the controls applied for damping improvement

            7.4.1     Objectives and key outputs of the study

            7.4.2     System Modelling Details

      7.5    AC and DC system fault tests

            7.5.1     Objectives and key outputs of the study

            7.5.2     System Modelling Details

      7.6    References

8    Studies over the Operational Life of the HVDC System

      8.1    Process overview

            8.1.1     Who's responsible for the studies and why?

      8.2    Transmission network planning and operational studies

      8.3    Post‐disturbance analysis (model validation studies)

      8.4    Pre‐specification studies of new transmission and generation equipment

9    Model maintainability 

      9.1    Introductions

            9.1.1     Who's responsible to upkeep models

      9.2    Approaches to model maintainability

            9.2.1     Black‐box models

            9.2.2     Provision of the source code

            9.2.3     Simplified response models to complement detailed models

            9.2.4     Replica of control and protection systems cubicles

      9.3    Future prospects on the field of HVDC modelling and model maintainability

10   Example Studies

      10.1   Rio Madeira HVDC transmission system

            10.1.1    Introduction

            10.1.2    Pre‐bid phase studies

            10.1.3    Bid specification phase

            10.1.4    After Bid studies

      10.2   Nelson River Bipole 1 Valve Replacement Project: Application of EMT Simulation for the Solution

               of HVDC Control Problems 

            10.2.1    Nelson River Bipole 1 System Description

            10.2.2    Extinction Angle Control Concept

            10.2.3    Proposed Modifications

            10.2.4    Overview of EMT Modelling

      10.3   The digital simulator of the Vyborg HVDC back‐to‐back station

            10.3.1    Main features of Vyborg HVDC back‐to‐back station

            10.3.2    Vyborg HVDC station Power Flows Controller

            10.3.3    The embedded digital simulator

      10.4   Refurbishment Project of Hokkaido‐Honshu HVDC Link with Multiple Vendor Scheme

      10.5   References

11   Summary and Concluding Remarks

Appendix A ‐ Network Configuration for Study Examples

Appendix B ‐ Load Flow Calculation

Appendix C ‐ Stability Studies

Appendix D ‐ Performance of the HVDC System (EMT Software)

Appendix E ‐ Short circuit analysis

Appendix F ‐ AC System Harmonic Impedance

Appendix G ‐ Small signal analysis

Appendix H ‐ Real Time Simulator

Appendix I ‐ Step by step calculation of a HVDC system