- TB 675 2017 B4-61 General guidelines for HVDC electrode design
- TB 671 2016 B4-62 Connection of wind farms to weak AC networks
- TB 663 Guidelines for the procurement and testing of STATCOMS
- TB 657 2016 Guidelines for the preparation of "connection agreements" or "Grid Codes" for multi-terminal schemes and DC Grids
- TB 649 2016 GUIDELINES FOR LIFE EXTENSION OF EXISTING HVDC SYSTEMS
- TB 619 2015 HVDC CONNECTION OF OFFSHORE WIND POWER PLANTS
- TB 617 2015 HVDC LCC Converter Transformers - CONVERTER TRANSFORMER FAILURE SURVEY RESULTS FROM 2003 TO 2012
- TB 609 2015 Study of Converter Transients Imposed on the HVDC Converter Transformers
- TB 604 2014 Guide for the Development of Models for HVDC Converters in a HVDC Grid
- TB 590 2014 B4-04 Protocol for reporting the operational performance of HVDC Transmission Systems
- TB 563 2013 B4-38 Modelling and Simulation Studies to be performed during the lifecycle of HVDC Systems
- TB 554 2013 B4-49 Performance Evaluation and Applications Review of Existing Thyristor Control Series Capacitor Devices – TCSC
- TB 553 2013 B4-47 Special Aspects of AC Filter Design for HVDC Systems
- TB 536 2013 C4/B4/C1.604 Influence of Embedded HVDC Transmission on System Security and AC Network Performance
- TB 533 2013 B4-52 HVDC Grid Feasibility Study
- TB 508 2012 B4-44 HVDC Environmental Planning Guidelines
- TB 492 2012 B4-46 Voltage Source Converter (VSC) HVDC for Power Transmission - Economic Aspects and Comparison with other AC and DC Technologies
- TB 447 2011 B4-48 Components Testing of VSC System for HVDC Applications
- TB 417 2010 B4-45 Technological Assessment of 800kV HVDC Applications
- TB 407 2010 JWG A2/B4.28 HVDC Converter Transformers - Guidelines for conducting design reviews for HVDC converter transformers
- TB 406 2010 JWG A2/B4.28 HVDC Converter Transformers - Design review, test procedures, ageing evaluation and reliability in service
- TB 388 2009 JWG B2/B4/C1.17 IMPACTS OF HVDC LINES ON THE ECONOMICS OF HVDC PROJECTS
- TB 371 2009 WG B4.40 Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)
- TB 370 2009WG B4.39 Integration of large Scale Wind Generation using HVDC and Power Electronics
- TB 364 2008 WG B4.41 Systems with multiple DC Infeed
- TB 352 2008 WG B4.34 Capacitor Commutated Converted (CCC) HVDC Interconnections: Digital modeling and Benchmark Circuit
- TB 337 2007 JWG B4/A3/B3.43 Increased System Efficiency by Use of New Generations of Power Semiconductors
- TB 280 2005 SC B4 WG B4.33 HVDC and FACTS for distribution systems
- TB 269 2005 SC B4 WG B4.37 VSC Transmission
- TB 242 2004 SC B4 WG B4.35 Thyristor controlled voltage regulators: Parts 1 and 2
- TB 240 2004 SC B4/A2 JTF B4.04/A2.01 Analysis of HVDC thyristor converter transformer performance
- TB 237 2003 SC B4 WG B4.19 Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) for arc furnace and flicker compensation
- TB 223 2003 SC B4 WG B4.28 Active filters in HVDC applications
- TB 222 2003 SC B4 WG B4.05 On voltage and power stability in AC/DC systems
- TB 215 2002 SC 14 WG 14.32 HVDC converter stations for voltages above +/- 600 kV
- TB 205 2002 SC 14 WG 14.31 Custom power - State of the art.
- TB 202 2002 SC 14 WG 14.26 HVDC stations audible noise
- TB 186 2001 SC 14 WG 14.20 Economic assessment of HVDC links
- TB 183 2001 SC 14/37/38/39 JWG 14/37/38/39.24 FACTS technology for open access
- TB 160 2000 SC 14 WG 14.27 Unified power flow controller (UPFC)
- TB 149 1999 SC 14 WG 14.29 Coordination of controls of multiple FACTS/HVDC links in the same system.
- TB 144 1999 SC 14 WG 14.19 Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM)
- TB 143 1999 SC 14 WG 14.25 Cross-modulation of harmonics in HVDC schemes
- TB 139 1999 SC 14 WG 14.30 Guide to the specification and design evaluation of AC filters for HVDC systems.
- TB 136 1999 SC 14 TF 14.01.04 Fire aspects of HVDC thyristor valves and valve halls.
- TB 130 1998 SC 14 WG 14.23 Operational guidelines and monitoring of HVDC systems
- TB 127 1998 SC 14 WG 14.11 Guide for upgrading transmission systems with HVDC transmission
- TB 123 1997 SC 14 WG 14.18 Thyristor controlled series compensation
- TB 119 1997 SC 14 WG 14.05 Interaction between HVDC convertors and nearby synchronous machines.
- TB 116 1997 SC 11/14 JWG 11/14.09 Guide for preliminary design and specification of hydro stations with HVDC unit connected generators.
- TB 115 1997 SC 14 WG 14.07 Guide for planning DC links terminating at AC system locations having low short-circuit capacities. Part II : Planning guidelines.
- TB 114 1997 SC 13/14 WG 13/14.08 Circuit-breakers for meshed multiterminal HVDC system.
- TB 113 1997 SC 14 WG 14.01.03 Test circuits for HVDC thyristor valves.
- TB 112 1997 SC 14 WG 14.17 Semiconductor power devices for use in HVDC and FACTS controllers.
- TB 103 1996 SC 14 WG 14.05 Commutation failures. Causes and consequences.
- TB 097 1995 SC 14 WG 14.12 System tests for HVDC installations.
- TB 093 1995 SC 14 WG 14.01.02 Guidelines for testing of thyristor valves for static var compensators.
- TB 092 1995 SC 14 WG 14.03.02 DC side harmonics and filtering in HVDC transmission systems
- TB 086 1994 SC 33 /21/14 JWG 33/21/14.16 Overvoltages on HVDC cables.
- TB 082 1994 SC 38 WG 38.01.05 Use of DC converters for VAR control.
- TB 078 1994 SC 14 WG 14.01.02 Voltage and current stresses on thyristor valves for static var compensators.
- TB 077 1993 SC 38 WG 38.05.04 Analysis and optimisation of SVC use in transmission systems.
- TB 068 1992 SC 14 WG 14.07 Guide for planning DC links terminating at AC locations having low short-circuit capacities. Part 1. AC/DC interaction phenomena.
- TB 065 1992 SC 14 WG 14.03 AC harmonic filters and reactive compensation for HVDC with particular reference to noncharacteristic harmonics.
- TB 051 1996 SC 38 WG 38.01.06 Load flow control in high voltage systems using FACTS controllers.
- TB 034 1989 SC 33/14 JWG 33/14.05 Guidelines for the applications of metal oxide arresters without gaps for HVDC converter stations.
- TB 025 1986 SC 38 TF 38.01.02 Static var compensators.
- TB 003 1987 SC 14 WG 14.04 Compendium of HVDC schemes throughout the world.
- TB 000 1994 SC 14 WG 14.02 A summary of the report on survey of controls and control performance in HVDC schemes.
- Session papers
- Other Documents
- SC Library
- Documents related to the development of HVDC Grids
TB 536 2013 C4/B4/C1.604 Influence of Embedded HVDC Transmission on System Security and AC Network Performance
This brochure highlights the gain in flexibility provided by an embedded HVDC link (defined as a DC link with at least two ends connected to a single synchronous AC network) for an existing HVAC grid. It also points out the possible technical issues that may arise, along with the different capabilities and performances depending on the underlying DC technology. Illustrations through existing or planned projects are proposed, in addition to open models for a benchmark network and VSC converters.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Drivers for the development of embedded HVDC systems
1.2 Definition of embedded HVDC system
1.3 Overview of past work within CIGRE
1.4 Purposes and organization of the document
2 STATE OF THE ART
2.2 HVDC transmission using line-commutated current-source converters
2.3 HVDC transmission using self-commutated voltage-source converters
2.4 Main LCC and VSC HVDC features, and limitations compared to HVAC
2.4.1 The specific case of back-to-back configuration
2.5 New trends in VSC-HVDC
2.5.1 Existing VSC topologies: recent advances and remaining limitations
2.5.2 Toward DC fault current blocking capability: the full-bridge valve
2.5.3 The hybrid VSC topology
2.6 HVDC link technologies
2.6.1 Submarine and underground cables
2.6.2 Overhead lines
3 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECTS
3.1 Existing embedded HVDC links
3.1.1 Caprivi link (Namibia)
3.1.2 Kii Channel HVDC Project (Japan)
3.1.3 Fenno-Skan (Finland-Sweden)
3.1.4 Directlink (Australia)
3.1.5 Murraylink (Australia)
3.1.6 Minami Fukumitsu (Japan)
3.1.7 Kingsnorth HVDC Link (England)
3.1.8 Other existing embedded HVDC links
3.2 Projects of embedded HVDC links
3.2.1 France-Spain HVDC link
3.2.2 ALEGRO (Belgium-Germany)
3.2.3 France-Italy HVDC link
3.2.4 Switzerland-Italy: Greenconnector project
3.2.5 The Western HVDC Link (UK)
3.2.6 South-West Link (Sweden-Norway)
4 SYSTEM TECHNICAL PERFOMANCE ISSUES WITH EMBEDDED HVDC LINES
4.1 Power flow control functionalities
4.1.1 Static power flow optimization
4.1.2 Overload capability
4.1.3 Special power flow controls for LCC-HVDC
4.1.4 Automatic frequency control
4.1.5 Black start
4.2 Voltage and reactive power support functionalities
4.2.1 Voltage and reactive power management under normal operation
4.2.2 Voltage support under contingency conditions
4.3 System stability enhancement functionalities
4.3.1 Power oscillation damping
4.3.2 Transient stability and fault recovery
4.3.3 Subsynchronous damping enhancement
5 BENCHMARK MODELS
5.1 Models expectations
5.2 LCC converter model
5.3 VSC converter models
5.3.1 VSC-HVDC modeling for power system steady-state studies
5.3.2 VSC-HVDC modeling for dynamic studies
5.4 HVDC line modeling
5.5 Network benchmark model
5.5.1 General considerations of benchmark network created “from scratch”
5.5.2 Descriptions of the benchmark Network
5.5.3 An example benchmark network implementation and simulations
6 INSERTING A NEW HVDC INTO AN AC NETWORK: AN OPERATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
6.1 Long-term planning studies
6.1.1 Drivers for embedded HVDC
6.1.2 Technical evaluations particular to HVDC
6.1.3 Credible faults in reliability or security standards: highlight on AC to DC conversion
6.1.4 Organisational issues in planning
6.2 First HVDC operations
6.3 Daily HVDC operations
6.3.1 Control room aspects
6.3.2 Coordination HVDC links in an international setting
7 CONCLSUIONS AND PROSPECTS
10.1 Terms Of Reference of the group
10.2 Usual applications of HVDC (embedded or not)
10.2.1 Submarine and underground cable transmission
10.2.2 Long-distance bulk-transmission
10.2.3 Offshore transmission of renewable energy
10.2.4 Infeed to large urban areas
10.2.5 Weak AC network connections
10.2.6 Asynchronous interconnection
10.2.7 Toward DC segmented grids
10.3 HVDC systems based on line-commutated converters (LCC-HVDC)
10.3.1 Description of classical HVDC
10.3.2 Operation of the LCC-HVDC system
10.3.3 Effects of different control strategies
10.4 Voltage Source Converter based HVDC system (VSC-HVDC)
10.4.1 2-level VSC-HVDC converters
10.4.2 Multi-Level VSC-HVDC converters
10.5 HVDC configurations
10.5.1 Back-to-Back Configuration
10.5.2 Monopolar Configuration
10.5.3 Bipolar Configuration
10.5.4 Multiterminal Configuration
10.6 HVDC links connected to weak AC systems
10.7 Special case study of VSC-HVDC inserted in AC networks
10.7.1 Series operation of an AC line and VSC HVDC
10.7.2 Parallel operation of an AC-line and VSC-HVDC
10.8 VSC-HVDC modeling for power system steady-state studies
10.9 Load-flow results for the benchmark network model