- TB 675 2017 B4-61 General guidelines for HVDC electrode design
- TB 671 2016 B4-62 Connection of wind farms to weak AC networks
- TB 663 Guidelines for the procurement and testing of STATCOMS
- TB 657 2016 Guidelines for the preparation of "connection agreements" or "Grid Codes" for multi-terminal schemes and DC Grids
- TB 649 2016 GUIDELINES FOR LIFE EXTENSION OF EXISTING HVDC SYSTEMS
- TB 619 2015 HVDC CONNECTION OF OFFSHORE WIND POWER PLANTS
- TB 617 2015 HVDC LCC Converter Transformers - CONVERTER TRANSFORMER FAILURE SURVEY RESULTS FROM 2003 TO 2012
- TB 609 2015 Study of Converter Transients Imposed on the HVDC Converter Transformers
- TB 604 2014 Guide for the Development of Models for HVDC Converters in a HVDC Grid
- TB 590 2014 B4-04 Protocol for reporting the operational performance of HVDC Transmission Systems
- TB 563 2013 B4-38 Modelling and Simulation Studies to be performed during the lifecycle of HVDC Systems
- TB 554 2013 B4-49 Performance Evaluation and Applications Review of Existing Thyristor Control Series Capacitor Devices – TCSC
- TB 553 2013 B4-47 Special Aspects of AC Filter Design for HVDC Systems
- TB 536 2013 C4/B4/C1.604 Influence of Embedded HVDC Transmission on System Security and AC Network Performance
- TB 533 2013 B4-52 HVDC Grid Feasibility Study
- TB 508 2012 B4-44 HVDC Environmental Planning Guidelines
- TB 492 2012 B4-46 Voltage Source Converter (VSC) HVDC for Power Transmission - Economic Aspects and Comparison with other AC and DC Technologies
- TB 447 2011 B4-48 Components Testing of VSC System for HVDC Applications
- TB 417 2010 B4-45 Technological Assessment of 800kV HVDC Applications
- TB 407 2010 JWG A2/B4.28 HVDC Converter Transformers - Guidelines for conducting design reviews for HVDC converter transformers
- TB 406 2010 JWG A2/B4.28 HVDC Converter Transformers - Design review, test procedures, ageing evaluation and reliability in service
- TB 388 2009 JWG B2/B4/C1.17 IMPACTS OF HVDC LINES ON THE ECONOMICS OF HVDC PROJECTS
- TB 371 2009 WG B4.40 Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)
- TB 370 2009WG B4.39 Integration of large Scale Wind Generation using HVDC and Power Electronics
- TB 364 2008 WG B4.41 Systems with multiple DC Infeed
- TB 352 2008 WG B4.34 Capacitor Commutated Converted (CCC) HVDC Interconnections: Digital modeling and Benchmark Circuit
- TB 337 2007 JWG B4/A3/B3.43 Increased System Efficiency by Use of New Generations of Power Semiconductors
- TB 280 2005 SC B4 WG B4.33 HVDC and FACTS for distribution systems
- TB 269 2005 SC B4 WG B4.37 VSC Transmission
- TB 242 2004 SC B4 WG B4.35 Thyristor controlled voltage regulators: Parts 1 and 2
- TB 240 2004 SC B4/A2 JTF B4.04/A2.01 Analysis of HVDC thyristor converter transformer performance
- TB 237 2003 SC B4 WG B4.19 Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) for arc furnace and flicker compensation
- TB 223 2003 SC B4 WG B4.28 Active filters in HVDC applications
- TB 222 2003 SC B4 WG B4.05 On voltage and power stability in AC/DC systems
- TB 215 2002 SC 14 WG 14.32 HVDC converter stations for voltages above +/- 600 kV
- TB 205 2002 SC 14 WG 14.31 Custom power - State of the art.
- TB 202 2002 SC 14 WG 14.26 HVDC stations audible noise
- TB 186 2001 SC 14 WG 14.20 Economic assessment of HVDC links
- TB 183 2001 SC 14/37/38/39 JWG 14/37/38/39.24 FACTS technology for open access
- TB 160 2000 SC 14 WG 14.27 Unified power flow controller (UPFC)
- TB 149 1999 SC 14 WG 14.29 Coordination of controls of multiple FACTS/HVDC links in the same system.
- TB 144 1999 SC 14 WG 14.19 Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM)
- TB 143 1999 SC 14 WG 14.25 Cross-modulation of harmonics in HVDC schemes
- TB 139 1999 SC 14 WG 14.30 Guide to the specification and design evaluation of AC filters for HVDC systems.
- TB 136 1999 SC 14 TF 14.01.04 Fire aspects of HVDC thyristor valves and valve halls.
- TB 130 1998 SC 14 WG 14.23 Operational guidelines and monitoring of HVDC systems
- TB 127 1998 SC 14 WG 14.11 Guide for upgrading transmission systems with HVDC transmission
- TB 123 1997 SC 14 WG 14.18 Thyristor controlled series compensation
- TB 119 1997 SC 14 WG 14.05 Interaction between HVDC convertors and nearby synchronous machines.
- TB 116 1997 SC 11/14 JWG 11/14.09 Guide for preliminary design and specification of hydro stations with HVDC unit connected generators.
- TB 115 1997 SC 14 WG 14.07 Guide for planning DC links terminating at AC system locations having low short-circuit capacities. Part II : Planning guidelines.
- TB 114 1997 SC 13/14 WG 13/14.08 Circuit-breakers for meshed multiterminal HVDC system.
- TB 113 1997 SC 14 WG 14.01.03 Test circuits for HVDC thyristor valves.
- TB 112 1997 SC 14 WG 14.17 Semiconductor power devices for use in HVDC and FACTS controllers.
- TB 103 1996 SC 14 WG 14.05 Commutation failures. Causes and consequences.
- TB 097 1995 SC 14 WG 14.12 System tests for HVDC installations.
- TB 093 1995 SC 14 WG 14.01.02 Guidelines for testing of thyristor valves for static var compensators.
- TB 092 1995 SC 14 WG 14.03.02 DC side harmonics and filtering in HVDC transmission systems
- TB 086 1994 SC 33 /21/14 JWG 33/21/14.16 Overvoltages on HVDC cables.
- TB 082 1994 SC 38 WG 38.01.05 Use of DC converters for VAR control.
- TB 078 1994 SC 14 WG 14.01.02 Voltage and current stresses on thyristor valves for static var compensators.
- TB 077 1993 SC 38 WG 38.05.04 Analysis and optimisation of SVC use in transmission systems.
- TB 068 1992 SC 14 WG 14.07 Guide for planning DC links terminating at AC locations having low short-circuit capacities. Part 1. AC/DC interaction phenomena.
- TB 065 1992 SC 14 WG 14.03 AC harmonic filters and reactive compensation for HVDC with particular reference to noncharacteristic harmonics.
- TB 051 1996 SC 38 WG 38.01.06 Load flow control in high voltage systems using FACTS controllers.
- TB 034 1989 SC 33/14 JWG 33/14.05 Guidelines for the applications of metal oxide arresters without gaps for HVDC converter stations.
- TB 025 1986 SC 38 TF 38.01.02 Static var compensators.
- TB 003 1987 SC 14 WG 14.04 Compendium of HVDC schemes throughout the world.
- TB 000 1994 SC 14 WG 14.02 A summary of the report on survey of controls and control performance in HVDC schemes.
- Session papers
- Other Documents
- SC Library
- Documents related to the development of HVDC Grids
TB 533 2013 B4-52 HVDC Grid Feasibility Study
Until now most HVDC schemes have been point to point connections. A few multi-terminal schemes have been built with one extra terminal. But there have been many discussions of using HVDC for more advanced grids. The TB investigates the technical and economic feasibility to build such HVDC grids. The first question to answer is if HVDC grids offer any advantage over many point to point HVDC connections inside an AC grid. Another important question is if it will be possible to build HVDC breakers that are necessary to make the grid reliable. One more question is if one can make protections and control to the grid. These and many other challenging questions are studied in the Brochure
TABLE OF CONTENTS
2 HVAC NETWORK EXPANSION, OPERATION AND THE HVDC GRID CONCEPT
2.1 Historical lessons
2.1.1 Some conclusions from history
2.2 AC Grid Operation according to ENTSO-E requirements in the context of and HVDC overlay grid
2.2.1 Policy 1: Load-Frequency-Control and Performance
2.2.2 Policy 2: Scheduling and Accounting
2.2.3 Policy 3: Operational Security
2.2.4 Policy 4: Coordinated Operational Planning
2.2.5 Policy 5: Emergency Procedures
2.2.6 Policy 6: Communication Infrastructure
2.2.7 Policy 7: Data Exchanges
2.2.8 Policy 8: Operational Training
2.3 Technical HVDC Grid Applications and Benefit
2.3.2 Technical HVAC and HVDC Grid comparison
2.4 Introduction: gradual development
2.4.2 Wind Farms
2.5 Building the grid in steps
2.5.1 First steps: towards the radial HVDC Grid
2.5.2 Development starting from an interconnector between two points in asynchronously operated
2.5.3 Development from an offshore wind farm connection
2.6 Towards meshed grids: reliability
3 AVAILABLE CONVERTER TECHNOLOGIES, VSC AND LCC COMPARISON
3.2 Converter Technology for HVDC Grid - VSC
3.2.1 Using LCC in an HVDC Grid
4 MOTIVATION OF AN HVDC GRID
4.2 Economical benefits
4.3 Cost comparison of DC Grid and Point to Point HVDC schemes
4.3.1 HVDC station cost
4.3.2 HVDC station losses
4.3.3 Cost of losses
4.3.4 HVDC breaker
4.4 Mesh Size and Economic Impact
4.4.1 Mesh size for DC transmission
4.4.2 Economic Consideration of Mesh Size
4.5 Overlay DC Grid
5 HVDC GRID CONFIGURATIONS
5.1 HVDC systems
5.1.1 Asymmetric monopolar system with earth return
5.1.2 Asymmetric monopole system with metallic return
5.1.3 Symmetrical monopole grid
5.1.4 Bipolar HVDC Grid
5.2 Connecting monopolar converters to a bipolar HVDC Grid
5.3 System earthing
5.3.2 High impedance earth
5.3.3 Low impedance earth – Directly earthed systems
5.3.4 Combination of bipolar and monopolar stations
5.3.5 Recommended earthing structure
5.3.6 Line commutated converters together with voltage source converters - earthing
6 FAULT PERFOMANCE
6.2 Fault current components
6.3 DC fault power flow study
6.4 Influence of VSC converters
6.5 Influence of DC capacitors
6.6 DC Lines and other equipment in DC Grids, and the influence on the AC grid
7 PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS
7.2 Properties of DC system short circuit protections
7.3 Differences between DC Grid protection and existing DC system protection
7.3.1 Point-to-point VSC HVDC line protection
7.3.2 Point-to-point LCC HVDC line protection
7.4 AC line and busbar protection compared to DC protection
7.4.1 Existing AC line and busbar protection means
7.4.2 New protection means for DC protection
7.5 Other issues for protection systems
7.5.1 Robustness towards fault clearance
7.5.2 Robustness towards HV architecture and evolutions
7.5.3 Selectivity and trip order
7.5.4 Stable for disturbances
8 NEW COMPONENTS IN HVDC GRID - INCLUDING QUESTIONNAIRES TO MANUFACTURERS
8.1 HVDC Breakers for HVDC Grid
8.1.2 Questionnaire sent to prospective HVDC breaker manufacturers
8.2 Prototype HVDC Breaker for HVDC Grid
8.3 DC Fault Current Limiter (FCL) in HVDC Grids
8.3.1 Features of DC fault currents in HVDC Grids
8.3.2 Expected performance of fault current limiting devices
8.3.3 Current limiting methods
8.4 DC/DC converters
8.4.2 Various types of DC/DC converters
8.4.3 Economic comparison
8.4.4 Performance implications for DC Grids
8.5 DC cables survey
8.5.1 Questionnaire contents
8.5.3 Present day available technology
8.5.4 Forecast of cable technology development
8.5.5 Additional information
8.5.6 Other general comments
9 POWER FLOW CONTROL IN DC GRIDS
9.1.1 Control of branch currents in a DC Grid
9.1.2 Multiterminal HVDC Voltage Source converter operation control
9.2 Primary and secondary controls in a DC Grid
9.2.1 The requirements on the DC power flow control – Primary control
9.2.2 The requirements on the DC power flow control – Secondary control
9.3 Primary control methods
9.3.1 Primary Control – “The Voltage Margin Control” method
9.3.2 Primary Control – “The Voltage Droop Control” method
9.3.3 Primary control – “DC voltage droop control with dead-band” method
9.3.4 Primary control - “Autonomous converter control” method
9.5 Bibliography and references
10 THE REQUIREMENTS OF AN HVDC GRID - SECURITY AND RELIABILITY
10.1 HVDC Switchyard
11 NEEDED STANDARDIZATION
11.1 DC voltage
11.2 What should be standardized at a minimum?
12 NEW WORKING GROUPS WITHIN THE HVDC GRID AREA
Appendix A HVDC Load flow models and calculation
Appendix B Converter Power flow during DC Grid faults
Appendix C AC/VSC HVDC power flow models
Appendix D Dynamic Simulations of DC Grids
Appendix E Transient stability model
Appendix F Technology status of LCC MTDC
Appendix G Mesh size for AC transmission
Appendix H Switching DC in an HVDC system
Appendix I Current limiting devices