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TB 492 2012 B4-46 Voltage Source Converter (VSC) HVDC for Power Transmission - Economic Aspects and Comparison with other AC and DC Technologies

The objective of the WG was to develop an assessment process to evaluate the beneficial impact of VSC-HVDC on power systems. The proposed methodology includes a straightforward analysis of important environmental facts that have to be taken into account for an appropriate assessment. Case studies have been provided in order to demonstrate the application of the proposed methodology. This WG gives a snapshot on the current technology, application areas and economic values. With ongoing developments it can be expected that VSC-HVDC will become even more attractive for bulk power transmission and might become an economic feasible alternative to other technologies.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION

2 TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

      2.1 Introduction

      2.2 Bulk power transmission

      2.3 HVAC power transmission

      2.4 Line commutated HVDC

            2.4.1 Introduction to LCC-HVDC

            2.4.2 LCC-HVDC basic setup

            2.4.3 Power control principles

            2.4.4 LCC-HVDC Reliability

            2.4.5 Summary LCC-HVDC transmission

      2.5 Voltage Sourced Converter based HVDC

            2.5.1 Power control principles and PWM-VSC-HVDC basics

            2.5.2 Modular Multilevel Converter Topology – MMC-VSC-HVDC

      2.5.3 Hybrid Multilevel Technology – HML-VSC-HVDC 

      2.5.4 Cascaded two-level converter – CTL-VSC-HVDC

      2.5.5 VSC-HVDC Reliability

      2.5.6 Summary of VSC-HVDC transmission

3 OPERATIONAL PROPERTIES 

      3.1 Ancillary services

      3.2 Differences between HVAC and HVDC in system operation

      3.3 The value of VSC from a TSO perspective

4 ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT PROCESS

      4.1 Process description

            4.1.1 Phase I – Case study analysis

            4.1.2 Phase II – Cost estimation

            4.1.3 Phase III – Functional benefit

            4.1.4 Phase IV – Cash flow analysis

      4.2 Economic figures of HVAC and HVDC

            4.2.1 Substation costs

            4.2.2 Transmission line costs

            4.2.3 Reactive power compensation

            4.2.4 Operation and Maintenance

            4.2.5 Loss evaluation - Examples

            4.2.6 Right of way

      4.3 Economic evaluation

            4.3.1 Fast reactive power control - Voltage support

            4.3.2 Fast power flow control

            4.3.3 Market coupling

            4.3.4 Loss reduction

            4.3.5 Environmental impact

            4.3.6 Black-start and Island supply

      4.4 Additional comments on the cost factors

      4.5 Summary of Assessment Process

5 CASE STUDIES

      5.1 Randstad 380 Project Feasibility of VSC HVDC Application in a Meshed Grid

            5.1.1 Problem definition

            5.1.2 Technical analysis

            5.1.3 Present Load and Generation as of 2006

            5.1.4 Future scenarios

            5.1.5 Economic assessment

            5.1.6 Summary and conclusions Randstad

      5.2 VSC-HVDC as alternative to ac in German TSO-Grid – Wahle Mecklar case study

            5.2.1 Network model

            5.2.2 Loss consideration

            5.2.3 Reactive power balance

            5.2.4 Controllability

            5.2.5 Economic consideration

            5.2.6 Conclusion

      5.3 An Intra-European Interconnection

            5.3.1 Assumptions

            5.3.2 Analysis on technical criteria

            5.3.3 Cost Analysis

            5.3.4 Conclusion

      5.4 Generic Case: Cross Border Interconnection

            5.4.1 Case study analysis

            5.4.2 Cost analysis

            5.4.3 Functional benefits

            5.4.4 Cash flow analysis

            5.4.5 Case summary

6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

7 REFERENCES