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TB 370 2009WG B4.39 Integration of large Scale Wind Generation using HVDC and Power Electronics

New large wind farms, both onshore and offshore, may face challenges such as, system stability issues, the need for the wind farm to provide system/ancillary services, and difficulties to build overhead lines. The TB shows how HVDC and other types of Power Electronics can help overcome these challenges, thereby helping to integrate large scale wind farms into power systems.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Background

Wind farm AC network interaction issues and grid codes

AC connection of wind farms – benefits from the use of power electronics

DC connection of wind farms – benefits from the use of power electronics

Bench mark model and interaction studies

Conclusions

0. FOREWORD

      0.1 Introduction

      0.2 Guide To The Brochure

      0.3 Overview of the Document

      0.4 Working Group Membership

      0.5 Abbreviations

1. OVERVIEW OF WIND GENERATOR TECHNOLOGY

      1.1 Wind as a Power and Energy Resource

      1.2 Basic operation of a wind generator

      1.3 Fixed speed system (Traditional system)

      1.4 Variable rotor resistance system

      1.5 Variable-Speed Using Doubly-Fed Induction Generator

      1.6 Variable-Speed wind Generators Using Full-Power Converter

      1.7 Reactive Power Capability of Variable-Speed wind turbines

      1.8 References

2. WIND FARM AND AC NETWORK INTERACTION ISSUES

      2.1 Overview

      2.2 Properties of Large Conventional Power Stations

      2.3 Effect of changed power flows

      2.4 Wind Intermittency and Generation Scheduling

      2.5 Active Power Wind Generation Controllability

      2.6 Reactive Power and Voltage Control

      2.7 Overview of Dynamic and Transient Interactions

      2.8 Dynamic stability

      2.9 Islanding

      2.10 Power Quality

      2.11 Summary

      2.12 References

3. OVERVIEW OF GRID CODE REQUIREMENTS

      3.1 The new and emerging grid connection codes

      3.2 Grid Code Development Process

      3.3 Technical Performance Requirements for Connection Of Wind Farms

      3.4 References

4. AC CONNECTION OF WIND FARMS USING FACTS

      4.1 Introduction

      4.2 Overview Of Transmission Via Ac Links

      4.3 Benefits Arising From the Use of Power Electronics

      4.4 Wind Farm Connections Compensated Using A SVC

      4.5 Wind Farm Connections Compensated Using a STATCOM

      4.6 Other FACTS Devices

      4.7 Wind Farm Connections Using Energy Storage

      4.8 Conclusions

      4.9 References

5. HVDC CONNECTION OF WIND FARMS

      5.1 Brief Overview And Benefits Of General HVDC Systems

      5.2 Overview of LCC HVDC

      5.3 Wind Farm Connections Using Vsc Transmission

      5.4 Multi-Terminal HVDC Transmission

      5.5 Parallel HVDC And AC Transmission

      5.6 Benefits Of Using HVDC For Grid Connection Of Wind Farms

      5.7 Conclusions

      5.8 References

6. LARGE SCALE WIND INTEGRATION - CASE STUDIES

      6.1 Introduction

      6.2 General Comments on the Connection of Large Scale Wind Farms

      6.3 London Array

      6.4 Baihubao wind farm

      6.5 Lake Bonney II Wind Farm

      6.6 Enbridge Wind Farm

      6.7 Nanhui Wind Farm, China

      6.8 Western Isles, Scotland

      6.9 NORD E.ON 1

      6.10 References

7. BENCHMARK MODEL

      7.1 Introduction

      7.2 Description Of The Original IEEE12 Bus Test System

      7.3 Adaptation of the benchmark model by CIGRE B4-39

      7.4 Some Comments to the PSCAD model

      7.5 Benchmark system – description of PSCAD model

      7.6 References

8. RESULTS OF INTERACTION STUDIES

      8.1 Introduction

      8.2 Overview of the Study Methodology

      8.3 Legend for Performance Study Results

      8.4 Test of the benchmark using a synchronous generator at bus 12

      8.5 AC connection supported by SVC or STATCOM

      8.6 LCC HVDC connection

      8.7 Connection with VSC Transmission

      8.8 Conclusion

      8.9 References

9. ECONOMIC ISSUES

      9.1 Introduction

      9.2 Project cost

      9.3 Operational and Maintenance Cost

      9.4 Availability and Reliability

      9.5 Derived System Costs - Power Regulation Reserves

      9.6 Wind power electricity production

      9.7 Electric power transmission losses

      9.8 Capitalisation of power transmission losses

      9.9 Financial evaluation

      9.10 References

10. FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCEPTS

      10.1 Environmental policies

      10.2 Energy Market Development

      10.3 Future Trends for Wind Farm

      10.4 Wind generator technology

      10.5 Power system constraints and network evolution

      10.6 Enhanced wind farm control

      10.7 System integration aspects

      10.8 Development of power electronic converters

      10.9 Development of energy storage schemes

      10.10 Hydrogen

      10.11 Offshore DC Power Collection Networks

      10.12 Offshore DC Grids and Supergrids

      10.13 References

11. CONCLUSIONS