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TB 280 2005 SC B4 WG B4.33 HVDC and FACTS for distribution systems

The development of new high power electronic switches has made it possible to implement Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) and other converters for usage in power systems. These converters offer now applications in distribution systems too, where they can resolve problems of environmental or planning restrictions and, as they are fast acting, they can either eliminate or mitigate frequently appearing power quality problems.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 Introduction

2 Overview of Different Types of Power Electronic Facilities

      2.1Power Electronics in distribution systems

      2.2 Power Electronic Devices

            2.2.1 Insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT, IEGT)

            2.2.2 Gate-turnoff thyristor (GTO)

            2.2.3 Integrated-gate commutated thyristor (IGCT or GCT)

      2.3 Voltage Source Converters (VSC)

      2.4 DC Transmission Based On Voltage Source Converters (VSC)

            2.4.1 VSC Technology with Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

            2.4.2 The VSC

            2.4.3 Control

            2.4.4 Extruded HVDC cables

      2.5 Solid State Switchgear Equipment

            2.5.1 Solid State Current Limiter using GTO switch (G – SSCL)

            2.5.2 Solid State Current Limiting Breaker using GTO switch (G-SSCLB)

            2.5.3 Solid State Breaker using GTO switch (G-SSB)

            2.5.4 Solid State Transfer Switch (T-SSTS)

      2.6 Shunt Compensation

            2.6.1 Introduction

            2.6.2 The Static VAr Compensator (T - SVC)

            2.6.3 The Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)

      2.7 Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR)

            2.7.1 General nature of problems to solve with a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR)

            2.7.2 The basic function of a DVR

            2.7.3 The energy storage system of a DVR

            2.7.4 Series versus shunt connected DVR’s

      2.8 Series/Shunt Combinations

            2.8.1 Unified Power Flow Controller using IGBT’s (IC-UPFC)

      2.9 Solid State On-Load Tap-Changer (T-SSLTC)

      2.10 References

3 Overview of applications for which power electronic devices would be beneficial

      3.1 Objective

      3.2 Terminology

      3.3 Advantages of Power Electronics

      3.4 Typical distribution system problems

            3.4.2 Limited easements/space or planning restrictions

            3.4.3 Low Fault Level

            3.4.4 High/Rising Fault Level

            3.4.5 Asynchronous grid connection

      3.5 Additional requirements of the Power Electronics facilities

            3.5.1 Training and Operator Acceptance

            3.5.2 Control and Protection Requirements

            3.5.3 Operation and Maintenance Requirements

            3.5.4 Converter Configurations

      3.6 Applications of HVDC based on VSC

            3.6.1 Hellsjön

            3.6.2 Gotland

            3.6.3 Direct Link

            3.6.4 Tjaereborg

            3.6.5 Eagle Pass

            3.6.6 Troll A

            3.6.7 Siemens Switchgear Factory and Flender-Werft, Germany

            3.6.8 Stadtwerke Karlsruhe and Stadtwerke Ulm/ Neu-Ulm

            3.6.9 Industrial factory, Saudi Arabia

      3.7 Installed solid state switchgear equipment

            3.7.1 Baltimore Gas and Electric

            3.7.2 Chubu Electric Corporation

            3.7.3 Commonwealth Edison Company

            3.7.4 Detroit Edison Company

            3.7.5 Kyushu Electric Corporation

            3.7.6 PG&E Energy Services

            3.7.7 Texas Utilities

            3.7.8 Toyo Oil Industry Company

      3.8 Installed devices of shunt conditioners

            3.8.1 American Electric Power

            3.8.2 British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority

            3.8.3 Chubu Electric Corporation

            3.8.4 Hagfors, Sweden

            3.8.5 Kansai Electric Power Co

            3.8.6 Rejsby Hede Wind farm

            3.8.7 RWE Energie

            3.8.8 Sumitomo Steel Co.

            3.8.9 Avestapolarit STATCOM, Torneå, Finland

      3.9 Dynamic voltage restorer installations

            3.9.1 Duke Power Company

            3.9.2 Florida Power Corporation (FPC)

            3.9.3 Oglethorpe Power Corporation

            3.9.4 Powercor Australia, Ltd.

            3.9.5 Public Service Electric and Gas

            3.9.6 Scottish Power

      3.10 References

4 Selection of recommended state of the art devices and applications

      4.1 Introduction

      4.2 Suggested state of the art power electronic facilities

      4.3 Solid State Transfer Switch

      4.4 DC transmission based on VSC

      4.5 Dynamic Voltage Restorer

      4.6 STATCOM

      4.7 Some comments on commercial aspects

5 New Opportunities and Future Trends

      5.1 Future expectations

      5.2 Device Technology

      5.3 VSC Topologies

      5.4 Future Applications

            5.4.1 Integrated power quality solutions

            5.4.2 DC Transformers

            5.4.3 DC sub-transmission systems

            5.4.4 Industrial and commercial dc power distribution

            5.4.5 Domestic dc power distribution

      5.5 Future Distribution System Planning

      5.6 References