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TB 237 2003 SC B4 WG B4.19 Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) for arc furnace and flicker compensation

The brochure describes the application of STATCOM for arc furnace and flicker compensation. Starting from the measured flicker of an actual arc furnace, performances of the actual SVC compensation and the calculated STATCOM are compared. An utility application is presented which demonstrates the accuracy of the calculation method.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1. ARC FURNACE AND FLICKER COMPENSATION OBJECTIVES

      1.1 INTRODUCTION

      1.2 THE NEED TO COMPENSATE FLICKER 1-1

      1.3 LIMITS OF ACCEPTABLE FLICKER AND REPETITIVE VOLTAGE FLUCTUATIONS IN POWER

           SYSTEMS

            1.3.1 Introduction

            1.3.2 Prediction of Flicker Level at Planning Stage

            1.3.3 IEC Standards and Recommendations

            1.3.4 CENELEC EN 50160 Standard

            1.3.5 IEEE Standards

            1.3.6 Standards utilised in Japan and Far Eastern countries

      1.4 BASIC DESCRIPTION OF THE OPERATION OF ELECTRIC ARC FURNACES

            1.4.1 The a.c. Arc Furnaces

            1.4.2 The d.c. Arc Furnaces

      1.5 EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF COMPENSATION

            1.5.1 Increased Production 1-

            1.5.2 Advantages of Higher Active Power Availability

            1.5.3 Energy Savings

            1.5.4 Electrode Savings

      1.6 METHODS OF COMPENSATION

            1.6.1 Reactive Compensation Approaches

            1.6.2 Reasons for Utilising STATCOM for Arc Furnace Compensation

      1.7 REFERENCES

Chapter 2. STATCOM COMPENSATION APPROACHES

      2.1 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ARC FURNACE LOAD

      2.2 COMPENSATION REQUIREMENTS

      2.3 VECTOR REPRESENTATION OF ELECTRICAL VARIABLES

      2.4 COMPENSATION BY STATCOM

      2.5 BASIC STATCOM POWER CIRCUIT APPROACHES

      2.6 FLICKER REDUCTION ACHIEVED BY STATCOM IN ACTUAL INSTALLATIONS

      2.7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

      2.8 REFERENCES

Chapter 3. STATCOM CONTROL APPROACHES

      3.1 INTRODUCTION

      3.2 REQUIREMENTS FOR ARC FURNACE FLICKER MITIGATION

      3.3 DIFFERENCES FROM TRANSMISSION STATCOM CONTROL 3

      3.4 BASIC TOPOLOGY AND OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF STATCOM

      3.5 EXAMPLE OF A STATCOM CONTROL IMPLEMENTATION FOR FLICKER MITIGATION

      3.6 OTHER METHODS OF STATCOM CONTROL IMPLEMENTATION FOR FLICKER MITIGATION

      3.7 REFERENCES

Chapter 4. STATCOM RATING AND PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS

      4.1 INTRODUCTION

      4.2 FLICKER ESTIMATION FOR A NEW ARC FURNACE

      4.3 ANALYSIS OF UNCOMPENSATED ARC FURNACE

      4.4 FLICKER REDUCTION FACTOR CALCULATIONS FOR EXISTING SYSTEM

      4.5 FLICKER REDUCTION FACTOR CALCULATIONS FOR COMPENSATOR WITH LIMITED

           CAPACITY

      4.6 CONTROL PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS

      4.7 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COMPENSATOR RATING

      4.8 COMPARISON OF SVC AND STATCOM RATING

      4.9 REFERENCES

Chapter 5. APPLICATION OF STATCOM FOR ARC FURNACE COMPENSATION

      5.1 INTRODUCTION

      5.2 CONSIDERATIONS IN APPLICATION OF STATCOM FOR ARC FURNACE COMPENSATION

      5.3 FUNCTIONAL SPECIFICATION OF STATCOM FOR ARC FURNACE AND DISTURBING LOAD

           COMPENSATION APPLICATIONS

      5.4 UTILITY, PLANT OWNER AND COMPENSATOR MANUFACTURER INFORMATION

           REQUIREMENTS

            5.4.1 General Requirements

            5.4.2 Power System Characteristics

            5.4.3 Steady-state Performance

            5.4.4 Dynamic Performance, Control and Monitoring Facilities

            5.4.5 Performance Tests

            5.4.6 Site and Environmental

            5.4.7 Other Considerations 5

      5.5 EQUIPMENT DESIGN STANDARDS

      5.6 REFERENCES

Chapter 6. EXAMPLES OF STATCOM APPLICATIONS FOR ARC FURNACE AND FLICKER CONTROL

      6.1 INTRODUCTION

      6.2 SEGUIN, TEXAS, USA

      6.3 HAGFORS, SWEDEN

      6.4 TRIER, GERMANY

      6.5 TORNIO, FINLAND

      6.6 THE STATCOM COMPENSATOR INSTALLATIONS FOR ARC FURNACE FLICKER

           COMPENSATION IN JAPAN

      6.7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

      6.8 REFERENCES

TABLE 6.1 EXISTING AND PROPOSED INSTALLATIONS

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A STATES OF THE ARC FURNACE

APPENDIX B COMPENDIUM OF STATCOM CONTROL METHODS

      B.1 ID, IQ COMPENSATION THEORY

      B.2 CONTROL SCHEMES FOR STATCOM

            B.2.1 STATCOM Control Principles

            B.2.2 Vector Control

            B.2.3 Active Filtering Control

            B.2.4 Control Approach for Flicker Mitigation

            B.2.5 Alternative Flicker Control Approach

      B.3 REFERENCES

APPENDIX C BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SCHWABE FLICKER METER EXTENSIVELY USED IN THE USA

APPENDIX D NOMENCLETURE, ABBREVIATIONS AND GLOSSARY

      D.1 NOMENCLETURE

      D.2 ABBREVIATIONS

      D.3 GLOSSARY