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TB 215 2002 SC 14 WG 14.32 HVDC converter stations for voltages above +/- 600 kV

The scope of the work is to review the current state of HVDC converter stations up to 600 kV and the problems associated with it and to investigate in detail what needs to be done to expand the technology to voltages above 600 kV and specifically to 800 kV. Parallel operation of converters is not considered in this document.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.SCOPE

2.INTRODUCTION

3.REVIEW OF THE MAJOR FAILURES IN THE CURRENT HVDC CONVERTER STATIONS

      3.1 General

      3.2 Converter transformers

      3.3 HVDC wall bushings

      3.4 smoothing reactors

            3.4.1 Oil smoothing reactors

            3.4.2 air cored air insulated smoothing reactors

4.HVDC SYSTEMS AT VOLTAGES HIGHER THAN 600kV DC

      4.1 Voltage selection

      4.2 Bipole power rating

5.AC SYSTEM CONDITIONS

      5.1 Sending end

      5.2 Receiving end

      5.3 Strenght of AC system

6.CONFIGURATION OF HVDC SYSTEM

      6.1 Dc configuration

      6.2 Factors affecting number of series converters per pole

            6.2.1 Technical feasibility

            6.2.2 System spinning reserve

            6.2.3 Equipment failure

            6.2.4 Transformer size

            6.2.5 By-pass equipment

            6.2.6 Parallel converters

            6.2.7 Converter configuration

7.INSULATION LEVELS

      7.1 Insulation levels and air clearances

      7.2 Transformer insulation levels

8.THYRISTOR VALVES

      8.1 Principal design of thyristor valves

      8.2 Thyristor aspects

      8.3 Thyristor valve testing

9.CONVERTER TRANSFORMERS FOR 800kV HVDC

      9.1 Main design parameters

      9.2 Converter transformer design

      9.3 Transformer arrangement

      9.4 Transformer insulation

      9.5 Transformer impedance

      9.6 Approximate transformer size and shipping weight

      9.7 Testing

      9.8 Conclusion

10.SMOOTHING REACTOR

      10.1 Oil immersed smoothing reactors

      10.2 Air cored air insulated smoothing reactor

11 DC SWITCHYARD EQUIPMENT

      11.1 Current transducers

      11.2 Voltage divider

      11.3 Arresters

      11.4 Testing

12.EXTERNAL INSULATION

      12.1 General

      12.2 Environment

      12.3 Type of insulators

      12.4 Corrective actions

      12.5 Alternative design

      12.6 Dimension of porcelain insulators

      12.7 Dimensions of composite insulators

      12.8 Conclusions

13.CONVERTER STATION LAYOUT

      13.1 Equipment insulation and air clearances

      13.2 Ease of equipment replacement

      13.3 Valve hall dimensions

      13.4 DC switchyard

      13.5 Total dimensions

14. SUMMARY

15 CONCLUSIONS

16 REFERENCES

APPENDIX 1

APPENDIX 2