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TB 202 2002 SC 14 WG 14.26 HVDC stations audible noise

The principle purpose of this guide is to give specific recommendations to those responsible for preparing the audible noise aspects of technical specifications for HVDC projects, evaluating the proposed designs and monitoring the subsequent project. The main objective is to enable future technical specifications to be written and informed judgements made, such that the resulting outdoor audible noise levels fulfil applicable regulations and standards.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

HOW TO USE THE GUIDE

1. GENERAL ASPECTS OF SPECIFICATIONS

      1.1 BOUNDARIES OF RESPONSIBILITY

      1.2 SCOPE OF STUDIES

      1.3 TECHNICAL DATA TO BE SUPPLIED BY CONTRACTOR

2. INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES

      2.1 INTRODUCTION

      2.2 OBJECTIVES

3. DEFINITIONS

      3.1 SOUND AND NOISE

      3.2 SOUND PRESSURE, P

      3.3 SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL, LP

      3.4 NORMAL SOUND INTENSITY, IN

      3.5 NORMAL SOUND INTENSITY LEVEL, LI

      3.6 SOUND POWER, W

      3.7 SOUND POWER LEVEL, LW

      3.8 SOUND PROPAGATION

      3.9 DIRECTIVITY OF SOUND RADIATION

      3.10 SOUND MEASUREMENT FILTERS

      3.11 REFLECTING PLANE

      3.12 PRINCIPAL RADIATING SURFACE

      3.13 PRESCRIBED CONTOUR

      3.14 MEASUREMENT DISTANCE, X

      3.15 MEASUREMENT SURFACE

      3.16 BACKGROUND NOISE

      3.17 REFERENCES

4. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES

      4.1 BACKGROUND NOISE

      4.2 TOPOGRAPHY

      4.3 METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

      4.4 REFERENCES

5. NOISE LEVEL LIMITS

      5.1 REGULATIONS

            5.1.1 Noise level limits

            5.1.2 Noise level measurement

      5.2 LAND-USE CLASSIFICATIONS

      5.3 LOCATION OF REQUIRED PERFORMANCE LIMITS

      5.4 RELATIONSHIP OF PERFORMANCE LIMITS TO TIME DURATION

      5.5 TYPICAL NOISE PERFORMANCE LIMITS

            5.5.1 Specific A-weighted sound pressure levels

            5.5.2 Maximum allowable increase over background noise levels

      5.6 REFERENCES

6. SOUND EMITTING SOURCES

      6.1 GENERAL

      6.2 CONVERTER TRANSFORMERS

            6.2.1 Noise sources in a converter transformer

            6.2.2 Comparison to AC power transformers

            6.2.3 Special features of HVDC converter transformers

            6.2.4 Transformer Winding Noise

      6.3 REACTORS

            6.3.1 Type and design of HVDC reactors

            6.3.2 Mechanism of sound generation

            6.3.3 AC filter reactors

            6.3.4 HVDC smoothing reactors

            6.3.5 Self-tuned filter reactors

      6.4 CAPACITORS

            6.4.1 Type and design of capacitors

            6.4.2 Mechanism of sound generation

      6.5 COOLING FANS

      6.6 OTHER SOUND-EMITTING SOURCES

            6.6.1 Switching devices

            6.6.2 Synchronous compensators

            6.6.3 Diesel generators

            6.6.4 Air conditioning plant

            6.6.5 Cooling circuit pumps

            6.6.6 Outdoor valves

            6.6.7 Corona sources

      6.7 TYPICAL SOUND POWER LEVELS OF SOUND EMITTING SOURCES

      6.8 REFERENCES

7. SOUND REDUCTION MEASURES

      7.1 STATION LAYOUT

            7.1.1 Transformers and tanked reactors

            7.1.2 Air-cored reactors

            7.1.3 Capacitors

            7.1.4 Cooling fans

            7.1.5 Diesel generators

            7.1.6 Switching devices

            7.1.7 Air Conditioning Plant

            7.1.8 Corona sources

            7.1.9 Synchronous compensators

      7.2 COMPONENT DESIGN

            7.2.1 Transformers and tanked reactors

            7.2.2 Air-cored reactors

            7.2.3 Capacitors

            7.2.4 Cooling fans

            7.2.5 Pumps and Diesel generators

            7.2.6 Switching devices

            7.2.7 Air-Conditioning Plant

            7.2.8 High Voltage Connections

      7.3 SOUND ENCLOSURES

            7.3.1 Transformers and tanked-reactors

            7.3.2 Air-cored reactors

            7.3.3 Capacitors

      7.4 RETROFITTABLE TECHNIQUES

            7.4.1 Enclosures

            7.4.2 Damping

            7.4.3 Active noise and vibration mitigation

      7.5 REFERENCES

8. OPERATING CONDITIONS

      8.1 INTRODUCTION

      8.2 NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS

      8.3 EXCEPTIONAL OPERATING CONDITIONS

      8.4 OPERATING CONDITIONS SPECIFIED FOR VERIFICATION

9. SOUND LEVEL PREDICTION

      9.1 MODELLING OF PLANT

            9.1.1 Layout

            9.1.2 Source

            9.1.3 Transmission Path

      9.2 CALCULATION PROCEDURE

            9.2.1 Calculation of attenuation terms

      9.3 RESULT PRESENTATION

      9.4 REFERENCES

10. VERIFICATION OF COMPONENT SOUND POWER

      10.1 GENERAL

      10.2 CALCULATION

            10.2.1 Calculation of force spectrum

            10.2.2 Transfer function calculation

            10.2.3 Sound power calculation

      10.3 MEASUREMENT

            10.3.1 General aspects on sound power determination

            10.3.2 Sound pressure measurement

            10.3.3 Corrections for background noise

            10.3.4 Sound intensity measurement

            10.3.5 Vibration measurement

      10.4 COMBINATION OF CALCULATION AND MEASUREMENT

      10.5 VERIFICATION.....

            10.5.1 Verification of key components

            10.5.2 Verification of key components at site

      10.6 REFERENCES

 11. VERIFICATION OF SOUND LEVELS FROM THE HVDC STATION

      11.1 INTRODUCTION

      11.2 ACOUSTIC ENVIRONMENT

      11.3 CONDITIONS FOR VERIFICATION

      11.4 CALCULATION

      11.5 MEASUREMENT

      11.6 COMBINATION OF CALCULATION AND MEASUREMENT

      11.7 REFERENCES

 12. PARAMETERS TO BE SPECIFIED

      12.1 DATA TO BE PRESENTED BY CUSTOMERS, OR TO BE INVESTIGATED BY CONTRACTORS

            12.1.1 Land-use classification, noise regulation and limits

            12.1.2 Environmental condition

            12.1.3 Operation condition of HVDC station

      12.2 DATA TO BE CLARIFIED BY CONTRACTORS

            12.2.1 Noise of components

            12.2.2 Noise prediction of the HVDC station

            12.2.3 Noise measurement on the site