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TB 136 1999 SC 14 TF 14.01.04 Fire aspects of HVDC thyristor valves and valve halls.

Survey of the possible causes of fires in valves and valve halls; assistance to users in the areas of specification, engineering and construction; comparative information on fire detection and protection systems; fire alarm and fire control sustems; guidance with fire-fighting, operation and maintenance; guidance to actions after a fire. This is also a reference document for discussion with insurance companies.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.  INTRODUCTION

2.  STATEMENT OF PURPOSE

3.  STANDARDS, AND DEFINITIONS

      3.1 Standards

      3.2 Definitions

4.  FIRE HAZARDS IN VALVES AND VALVE HALLS

      4.1 Introduction

      4.2 Possible Causes

            4.2.1. Valve Insulation Failure

            4.2.2. Loose Connections or High Resistance Joints in the Power Circuit

            4.2.3. Valve Component Failures

            4.2.4. Thyristor Level Connections

            4.2.5. Coolant System Problems

            4.2.6. Contamination and Condensation

            4.2.7. Failure of Valve Hall Bushings

            4.2.8. Failure of Surge Arresters

            4.2.9. False Operation of Deluge System

            4.2.10. Other Valve Hall Equipment

            4.2.11. Work in and Around Valve Hall

      4.3 Assessment of Possible Consequences 

5.  VALVE HALL LAYOUT AND ACCESS

      5.1 Physical Arrangements

            5.1.1. Introduction

            5.1.2. Present Practices

            5.1.3. Specific Provisions

      5.2 HVDC Valve Hall Construction

            5.2.1. Introduction

            5.2.2. Valve Hall Construction

      5.3 Means of Egress

            5.3.1. Introduction

            5.3.2. Valve Hall Means of Egress

            5.3.3. Present Practices

6.  SUPERVISION OF VALVE COMPONENTS AND OTHER VALVE HALL EQUIPMENT

      6.1 Introduction

      6.2 Supervision of Valve Components

            6.2.1. Review of the Present Practice of Monitoring Valve Components

            6.2.2. Developments in Valve Monitoring

      6.3 Supervision of Other Valve Hall Equipment

      6.4 Possible Improvements 

7.  FIRE DETECTION SYSTEMS

      7.1 Introduction

      7.2 Detection and Operating Principles of Fire Alarm Systems

            7.2.1. Air Sampling Systems

            7.2.2. Electric Arc Detector Systems

            7.2.3. Infra-red Beam Smoke Detectors

            7.2.4. Infra-red Flame Detectors

            7.2.5. Imaging Video Camera Systems

      7.3 Field Tests and Installation Experience

      7.4 Operating Experience

      7.5 Guidelines for Valve Hall Fire Detection

8.  FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS

      8.1 Introduction

      8.2 Design Considerations for an Installed Fire Suppression System

      8.3 Types of Fire Extinguishing Agents

            8.3.1. Halon

            8.3.2. Carbon dioxide

            8.3.3. Dry Chemical

            8.3.4. Water

            8.3.5. Aqueous Foam Systems

      8.4 Installation Requirements

      8.5 Comparison of Fire Extinguishing Agents

      8.6 Survey of Valve Hall Fire Suppression Systems in Service

      8.7 Future Developments

9.  SMOKE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

      9.1 Introduction

      9.2 Design Considerations

            9.2.1. Natural Ventilation

            9.2.2. Forced Ventilation

      9.3 Example of Design Methods

      9.4 Examples of Design

            9.4.1. Sandy Pond

            9.4.2. New Zealand

            9.4.3. Etzenricht

            9.4.4.. Baltic Cable

10. CONTROL AND INTEGRATION OF FIRE DETECTION, FIRE PROTECTION AND CONVERTOR

     CONTROL SYSTEMS

      10.1 Introduction

      10.2 Fire Alarm Classification

            10.2.1. Classification by Detection Principle

            10.2.2. Classification by Detection Objective

            10.2.3. Detection System Reliability

      10.3 Fire Control System

            10.3.1. Basic System Functions

            10.3.2. Other System Components

            10.3.3. Outline of System Design

      10.4 Actual Practice

            10.4.1. Example of Sandy Pond HVDC Convertor Terminal

            10.4.2. Example of CU HVDC Convertor

      10.5 Operating Experience in Japan

      10.6 Guidelines for Integrated Fire Control Systems

11. FIRE FIGHTING AND MAINTENANCE

      11.1 Introduction

      11.2 Role of Station and Fire Fighting Personnel

            11.2.1. Actions in Case of a Fire

            11.2.2. Fire Fighting

            11.2.3. Examples of Station Emergency Instructions

      11.3 Example of Maintenance Programme (Sandy Pond)

12. ACTIONS AFTER A FIRE IS EXTINGHUISHED

      12.1 Introduction

      12.2 Inspection

      12.3 Methods to Evaluate the Level of Contamination

      12.4 Cleaning Methods

      12.5 Testing

13. GUIDANCE FOR PURCHASER SPECIFICATIONS

      13.1 Introduction

      13.2 Purchaser Specification

            13.2.1. General

            13.2.2. Thyristor Valves

            13.2.3. Valve Hall Bushings

            13.2.4. Other Valve Hall Equipment

            13.2.5. Valve Hall Construction

            13.2.6. Fire Detection Systems

            13.2.7. Fire Suppression Systems

            13.2.8. Smoke Management System

            13.2.9. Fire Alarm and Control Systems

            13.2.10. Monitoring of Valve Components and Valve Hall Equipment

14. CONCLUSIONS            

REFERENCES

APPENDIX 1 - Valve Hall Fire Hazards and Survey of Fire Incidents

APPENDIX 2 - Fire Protection Standards and Codes

APPENDIX 3 - Detection of an Overheating Resistor in Sandy Pond Pole 2 Convertor Station