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TB 127 1998 SC 14 WG 14.11 Guide for upgrading transmission systems with HVDC transmission

Following the installation of the first HVDC transmission scheme between Sweden and the Island of Gotland in 1954, over 60 HVDC schemes throughout the world have been installed. Since their initial installation many of the HVDC schemes have
been upgraded in various ways. By reviewing both what has been achieved in terms of upgrading and what potentially is possible to accomplish in an upgrade, this guide provides direction and the latest information on the subject.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 HISTORICAL REVIEW

      1.1 Replacement of Equipment by Modern Equipment

      1.2 Modern Equipment Replacement and Capacity Uprating

      1.3 Capacity Uprating

      1.4 Capacity Uprating and Performance Upgranding

      1.5 Conversion to the Multi-terminal Operation

      1.6 Ac System to DC System Conversion

2 FUTURE OPTIONS FOR UPGRANDING

      2.1 Planning for Staged Development

      2.2 Conversion to Multi-terminal Operation

      2.3 Conversion of AC Transmission Systems to DC

      2.4 Costs for Upgrading

3 UPGRADING FOR IMPROVED REALIABILITY AND PERFORMANCE

      3.1 Maintenance, modern Equipment and Obsolescence

      3.2 Spares

4 DC STATION MAJOR EQUIPMENT UPGRADE

      4.1 Replacement of Mercury Arc Vales

      4.2 Capacity Increase with Increased Cooling

      4.3 Adding a Multi-terminal Tap

      4.4 Adding Parallel and/or Series Valve Groups a HVDC Station

      4.5 Upgrading Electrodes

      4.6 Considerations for Upgrading Auxiliary Systems

5 UPGRADING DC LINES

      5.1 Upgrading Options

6 UPGRADING OF AC LINES FOR DC APPLICATION

      6.1 AC Transmission Line Upgrading Options

      6.2 Conversion of AC Line into DC

      6.3 Hybrid Transmission Lines

      6.4 AC/DC Coupling Problems

      6.5 Maximizing DC Circuit Power Capacity

      6.6 Corona and Field Effects

      6.7 Live Line Upgrading Possibility

7 CONTROL AND PROTECTION UPGRADING

      7.1 Upgrading Controls and Protections with Thyristor for Mercury Arc Valves

      7.2 Upgrading Controls and Protections to Improve System Performance

      7.3 Upgrading Controls to Accommodate an Inserted Tap

      7.4 Upgrading Controls to Accommodate Series or Parallel Valve Groups

8 SUMMARY

9 BIBIOGRAPHY

      9.1. Chronological Index

      9.2 Index by Station

      9.3 Index by Topic