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TB 025 1986 SC 38 TF 38.01.02 Static var compensators.

The rapid development of semiconductor devices and control techniques within the last two decades have enabled the development of controllable shunt reactive compensation devices with rapid response for electric power system applications. In recognition of the potential applications and the impact of such a flexible system design tool on future electric power systems CIGRE decided to form an Ad-Hoc Group to review the progress on the subject.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. APPLICATION OF STATIC VAR COMPESATORS TO ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

      1.1 Introduction

      1.2 Voltage Control

      1.3 Load Balacing

      1.4 Power Transfer Capacity Increase

      1.5 Transient Stability Improvement

      1.6 Improvement of System Damping

      1.7 Subsynchronous Resonance Damping

      1.8 Reactive Compesation of AC-OC Converters and HVDC Links

      1.9 Reduction of Temporary and Line Energisation Overvoltages

      1.10 Summary

2. STATIC VAR COMPESATOR TYPES AND BASIC CHARACTERISTICS

      2.1 Introduction

      2.2 Mechanically Switched Capacitors (MSC)

      2.3 Mechanically Switched Reactors (MSR)

      2.4 Saturated Reactor Compesator (SR)

      2.5 Thysristor Controlled Reactor Compensator (TCR)

      2.6 Thysristor Switched Capacitor Compensator (TSC)

      2.7 Hybrid Compensator (TCR+TSR)

      2.8 Self and Line-Commutated Convertor Compensators (SCC and LCCJ)

      2.9 A comparison of Static Var Compensators

3. POWER SYSTEM STUDIES RELATED TO STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR APPLICATIONS

      3.1 Introduction

      3.2 Load Flow Studies

      3.3 Large Disturbance (Transient Stability) Studies

      3.4 Small Disturbance (Steady-State Stability) Studies.

      3.5 Subsynchronous Resonance Studies

      3.6 Electromagnetic Transient Studies

      3.7 Harmonic Performance Studies

      3.8 Fault Level Studies

      3.9 Coordination, Optimisation, Loss ad Cost Evaluation Studies

      3.10 Summary

4. MODELLING OF STATIC VAR COMPESATORS IN POWER SYSTEM STUDIES

      4.1 Introduction

      4.2 Models for Load Flow Studies

            4.2.1 General Requirements

            4.2.2 Description of the Basic Model

            4.2.3 Extensions and Refinements to the Basic Model

      4.3 Models for Large and Small Disturbance Studies

            4.3.1 General Requirements

            4.3.2 Description of the Basic Model

            4.3.3 Simpler SVC Models

            4.3.4 Simplified Transfer Function Block Diagram for SVC and the Power System

      4.4 Models for Electromagnetic Transient Studies

            4.4.1 General Requirements

            4.4.2 Description of Basic Models

      4.5 Models for Harmonic Performance Studies

            4.5.1 General Requirements and Assumptions

            4.5.2 Description of the Basic Model

            4.5.3 Extensions and Refinements to the Basic Model

5. FUNCTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS OF STATIC VAR COMPENSATORS

      5.1 Introduction

      5.2 Specifications of Broad User Requirements and System Details

            5.2.1 Nature of the Particular SVC Application

            5.2.2 Characteristics of SVC Envisaged

            5.2.3 Network Details

      5.3 Specification of Static Var Compensator Characteristics

            5.3.1 SVC Characteristics

            5.3.2 SVC Control Characteristics

            5.3.3 Harmonics

            5.3.4 Equipment Characteristics

      5.4 SVC Design Information to be provided by the Tenderer

            5.4.1 SVC Layout

            5.4.2 SVC Performance

      5.5 Design Standards and Harmonic Performance Limits

            5.5.1 Relevant Standards for Major Components

            5.5.2 Typical Worst Case Characteristic Harmonic

            5.5.3 Existing Harmonic Distortion Limits

            5.5.4 Harmonic Weighting Factors

            5.5.5 Harmonic Impedance Characteristics of Power Systems

6. GUIDELINES FOR TESTINC OF STATIC VAR COMPENSATORS

      6.1 Introduction

      6.2 Factory Tests

            6.2.1 Factory Tests for Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR), Thyristor Switched Reactor (TSR), and

                   Thyristor Switched Capacitor (TSC) Type SVCs

            6.2.2 Factory Tests for Saturated Reactor (SR) Type SVCs

            6.2.3 Factory Tests for Self-Commutated Converter (SCC) and Line-Commutated Converter (LCC)

                   Type SVCs

      6.3 Site Tests

            6.3.1 Site Tests for Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR),Thryristor Switched Reactor (TSR) and

                   Thryristor Switched Capacitar (TSC) Tupe SVCs

            6.3.2 Site Tests for Saturated Reactor (SR) Type SVCs

            6.3.3 Site Tests for Self-Commutated Converter (SCC) and Line-Commutated Converter (LEC)

                   Type SVCs

7. CONTROL OF STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS AND FUTURE TRENDS

      7.1. Introduction

      7.2 Principles of Voltage Control and Gain Supervision

      7.3 Principles of Reactive Power Control and Coordination

      7.4 Principles of Control for System Transient Stability and Power Oscillation Damping Performance

           Enhancement

      7.5 Control for Subsynchronous Resonance Damping Applications

      7.6 Principles of Independent Phase Control

      7.7. Future Trends

 8. A SURVEY OF OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH STATIC VAR COMPENSATORS

      8.1 Introduction

      8.2 Description of the Survey Questionnaire

      8.3 Results of the Survey

      8.4 SVCs Consisting of Thryristor Controlled Reactors (TCR)

      8.5 SVCs Consisting of Thryristor Controlled Reactors and Mechanically Switched and/or Fixed

           Capacitors (TCR+MSC+FC)

      8.6 SVCs Consisting of Thryristor Controlled Reactors and Thyristor Switched Capacitors (TCR+TSC)

      8.7 Other Types of SVCs

      8.8 Additional Comments

      8.9 SVC Field Testing Trends

      8.10 Conclusions

9. GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND

      9.1 Introduction

      9.2 General Definitions

      9.3 Types of Static Var Compensators

      9.4 SVC Components

            9.4.1 Power Components

            9.4.2 Measurement Components

            9.4.3 Control Components

            9.4.4 Protection Components

            9.4.5 Monitoring Components

      9.5 performance Characteristics

            9.5.1 Compensator Equipment

            9.5.2 Electrical network Performance

            9.5.3 Thryristor

      9.6 SVC Modeling Techniques

      9.7 Terms Relating to Factory and Site Tests

      9.8 Symbols and Acronyms

            9.8.1 List of Principal Letter Symbols

            9.8.2 Abbreviations and Acronyms